The Large Hadron Collider ( LHC ) : A Basic History

History of cern

The European Organization for Nuclear Research or CERN is an international organization that was established in the year 1954 in the North Western suburbs of Geneva on the Franco – Swiss border, was established with the purpose to operate the world’s largest particle physics laboratory. Over the years since the inception of CERN, numerous scientific researches have been carried out with immense success.

Currently most of the activities at CERN are directed towards the new Large Hadron Collider or abbreviated as LHC and several experiments related to it. It represents a worldwide scientific project. The LHC tunnel is situated in the region between the Geneva International Mountains and the nearest Jura mountains around 100 meters underground. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP, but was closed down in the end of the year 2000. Now what CERN is doing is to pre-accelerate the protons in the existing PS / SPS accelerator complexes which will gain be injected into the LHC.

CMS, LHCb, ATLAS, TOTEM, ALICE, MoEDAL and LHC-forward – total seven experiments will be running in the collider to study the particle collisions from different angles each time with the help of different technologies.  All this experiments need extreme engineering effort. It needs the entire brilliant infrastructure. Several requirements are there to execute the experiments properly with ease. This accelerator has started generating vast quantities of data which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for a distributed processing. For this CERN is taking help of the computing and hosting grid. In the mid of the year 2005, a trial successfully streamed around 600 MB / s to almost seven different cities along the length and breadth of the map.

In August 2008, the initial particle beams were injected into the LHC. It was the time when the first attempt to circulate a beam through the whole LHC was taken, but the attempt failed because of the damaged magnet connection and the attempt had to stop in the mid of the September 2008 for the repairing of the magnet connection. However, the LHC restarted its operation on 20th November, 2009, when two beams were successfully circulated with energy of almost 3.5 trillion electric volts. During that time the challenge that the engineers faced was to balance both the beams so that they get smash against each other. In March 2010, scientists were successful of mashing two beams travelling with 3.5 TeV of energy, which resulted into a 7 TeV ( Trillion electron volts) event. In March 2012, the particle collision started which continued for at least two months. From 2012 the scientists decided to shut down for two years for the maintenance.

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