Kargil War of 1999 – Causes and Effects

The Indo-Pakistan war of 1999 or also known as the Kargil War was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the district of Kargil in Kashmir. The Reason of war was permeation of Pakistani soldiers with Kashmiri militants into Indian side of the Line of Control, which acts as the “de facto” border between the two states. When the war was in full bloom and even after, Pakistan continued to blame the independent rebels of Kashmir, but several documents left behind by the casualties and some proclamations made by Pakistan’s Prime Minister and the army Chief showed a complete contribution of Pakistani paramilitary forces. However, the Indian Army, with the support of the Indian Air Force, made atrocious attacks on the Pakistani positions and, with international diplomatic support, forced withdrawal of the Pakistani forces across the Line of Control (LOC).

The Indo-Pakistan war of 1999 is cited as one of the instances of ground warfare which took place on the higher altitudes of the Great Himalayas. It posed significant logistical problems for both the combating sides. This was the first direct ground war between two nations, after the development of nuclear weapons by both the countries. The war created a mess in the whole scenario of politics and economy of both the countries.
The background was created for the Indo-Pakistan War of 1999 due to several reasons. After the war of 1971 between both the countries, there had been no direct armed conflict between India and Pakistan. But during the 1990s, the escalating tensions due to separatist activities in Kashmir, which India believe were being supported by Pakistani Army and Government, as well as the conducting of nuclear tests in 1998 by India and Pakistan, led to an increasingly hostile relationship between both countries.

First, Pakistan infiltrated forces into the area controlled by the Indian, second being, when India discovered the infiltration of the Pakistani army and started to respond it and the final stage is the major battles between the two countries. Initially, it was not detected that the Pakistani troops are invading on the Indian side of Kashmir but when it came into light, Indian attacked the Pakistani positions. Yet, Indian army’s first priority in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1999 was to re-capture the peaks that were in immediate vicinity.
Pakistani finally sought American help to de-escalate the battle. Very few wars in the history create such a buzz among the nations like Indo-Pakistan war of 1999 did.

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