भारत मे मांस खाने का प्रचलन पुराना है, इसे सिद्ध करने के लिए हमरे धार्मिक पुस्तकों मे पूर्ण साक्ष्य मौजूद हैं| उन सब मे जो पुस्तक सबसे ऊपर आती है, वह है ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण, जिसके द्वितीय पंचिका के अध्याय प्रथम और द्वितीय मे पशुवों के बलि देने का संपूर्ण विवरण मौजूद है | ऋग्वेद के दसम मंडल मे भी कुछ ऐसे मंत्र हैं जो पशु बलि को बढ़ावा देने की बात करते हैं | अथर्वा वेद मे भी कुछ मंत्र पशुवो के मंशा का प्रयोग औषधि के रूप प्रयोग करने की बात कहते हैं |
हिन्दू धर्म के कुछ निष्ठावान विश्वाशी उन मन्त्रों को साक्ष्य के रूप प्रयोग करने पर यह कह कर विरोध कर सकते हैं की इन वेदो का अनुवाद उन ईसाईयों और यूरोपी लोगों ने किया है जो पशुवो का सेवन करते हैं और जिनके धर्म मे मांश भक्षण का कोई विरोध नहीं है और ऐसे लोग उन मन्त्रों का तात्पर्य या अर्थ अपने समाज और सोच को आधारित कर निकला है |
लेकिन हाल ही मे हरियाणा सरकार के पुरातत्व विभाग द्वारा एक ऐसी खोज हुयी है, जो उन लोगों का जो यह मानते हैं की भारत के लोग कभी मांस नहीं खाते थें का मुंह बंद कर देगा | दरअसल हरियाणा का पुरातत्व विभाग काफी समय से हरियाणा के कुनाल नमक स्थान पर खुदाई कर रहा था | कुनाल, हरियाणा का सबसे पुराने हरप्पन साइटो मे से एक है , यहाँ खुदाई करते समय शोधकर्ताओं को पके हुए मांश की हड्डियां प्राप्त हुयी हैं | खोजकर्ताओं के अनुसार निश्चय ही इस जगह पर रहने वाले लोग मांशाहारी रहे होंगे और प्राप्त हुए हड्डी के टुकड़े उनके आहार का अवशेष है |
हालाकिं अन्वेषकों ने अभी इन हड्डियों का पूर्ण रूप से जेनेटिक अध्यन नहीं किया है , लेकिन उनके अनुशार ये हड्डियां नीलगाय,भैंस या किसी और जानवर का हो सकता है | अध्ययन के लिए उन्होंने इन हड्डियों का अवशेष लखनऊ के बीरबल साहनी इंस्टीट्यूट आफ पलाइओस्केन्सेस को भेज दिया है |यह ज्ञात नही हो सका है की ऐसे पशु वे खाने के लिए पालते थें या फिर शिकार कर के लाते थें | लेकिन इस तरह के साक्ष्य निश्चय ही झुठलाए नहीं जा सकते हैं और इसका कोई विरोध नहीं कर सकता की हमारे पूर्वज मांशाहारी थें |
ये बात हम सभी जानते या पढ़ते रहे हैं की, अफ्रीका ही मानव का उद्गम स्थल है , अफ्रीका के इथियोपिया और चाँद जैसे देशों में मिले पूर्व मानव के जीवाश्म इसे सिद्ध भी करते रहे हैं | लेकिन हाल ही में यूरोप में मिले नए जीवाश्म, हमें हमारे उद्गम का एक नया दृष्टिकोण प्रश्तुत करते हैं |
वास्तव में बुल्गारिया और ग्रीस में ७.२ मिलियन वर्ष पुराने आदिमानव के जीवाश्म मिले हैं जो इथियोपिया या चाँद में मिले जीवाश्म से भी हज़ारों साल पुराने हैं | पुरातत्त्ववेत्ता के अनुशार ये साक्ष्य इस बात की पुष्टि करते हैं की मनुष्य लगभग २००००० साल पहले से ही यूरोप में मौजूद थें और वहां पर उनका सतत विकाश जारी था |
शोधकर्ताओं ने कहा की यह खोज शायद मनुष्यों के उत्पति और विकाश की एक नयी अवधारणा को जन्म दे और मानव विकाश की वे कड़ियाँ जो अफ्रीका उत्पति सिद्धांत के द्वारा समझी नहीं जा सकी शायद इस नहीं खोज से वे सारी अबूझ पहेलियाँ सुलझ सकें |
वैज्ञानिकों के अनुशार वातावरण में हुए व्यापक परिवर्तन ने शायद इन आदिमानवों को भोजन की तलाश में पृथ्वी के दूसरे जगहों पर जाने पर विवश किया हो |
तमिल भाषा में लिखे गये ग्रंथों में मदुरै के पास एक शहर के होने के प्रमाण हैं, लेकिन कोई पुरातत्विक साक्ष्य नही होने के कारण कुछ इतिहासकारों ने इसे महज एक कोरी कल्पना करार दिया था | संगम युग, जो की 400 BCE से २०० AD तक चला, दक्षिण भारत के इतिहास में एक ऐसा युग था जब तमिलनाडु के मदुरै शहर में उस काल के सभी महान कवी और ज्ञानियों ने वहां के पंड्या राजाओं के संरक्षण में एक शैक्षिक संघ का निर्माण कर बहुत से महान तमिल काव्य ग्रंथों की रचना कियें| उन ग्रंथों में उस काल का सामाजिक और संस्कृतक जीवन का विवरण मिलता है , ये वही ग्रन्थ हैं जिनमे मदुरै के निकट एक विशाल और भव्य शहर होने के बारे लिखा गया है |
अब तक कोई ठोस साबुत नही होने के कारण इस तरह के प्राचीन तमिलनाडु में एक शहर के होने को हमेशा से झुठलाया जाता रहा, लेकिन आख़िरकार मदुरै से 15 किलोमीटर दूर शिवगंगा जिले के कीलाडी गांव में बैंगलोर के भारतीय पुरातत्व सर्वेक्षण विभाग ने एक बेहतरीन खोज किया | पुरात्वविदों और शोधकर्ताओं के एक संघ ने मिलकर धवश्थ हो चुके एक बहुत पुराने शहर को खोज निकाला है जो संभवतः अपने समय में मोहन जोदड़ों के जैसे विशाल और महत्वपूर्ण स्थान रहा होगा|
अब तक हुए खुदाई में लगभग 3000 प्राचीन कालीन वस्तुयें प्राप्त हुईं हैं जैसे की पत्थर के पासे, चैस के टुकड़े जिनका आकर विल्कुल आधुनिक काल के चैस के जैसे हैं, कुछ आभूषण, धातु और हड्डियों के बने हथियार आदि| इन प्राप्त वस्तुओं से ये अनुमान लगाया जा सकता है की वे न सिर्फ व्यापार करते थे बल्कि वे अपने आमोद प्रमोद के लिए विभिन्न प्रकार के खेल भी खेलते होंगें |
खुदाई में बहुत से मिटटी के बर्तनों के टुकड़े भी प्राप्त हुए हैं जिनपे तरह तरह की सजावट की गयी है| उन टुकड़ों पर लिखे गये नाम वही तमिल नाम हैं जो संगम साहित्य में मिलते हैं , इसके आलावा इनपे लिखे लेख तमिल भ्रमहीं लिपि में लिखे गयें हैं, जिनसे वर्तमान तमिल लिपि का उद्भव माना जाता हैं |
इस खोज में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बात यह है की ढेर साडी इमारते जो की पूजा स्थल या सामूहिक या सांस्कृतिक कार्यक्रम के लिए बनाये गयें हैं वे पक्की ईटों से बने हैं, इससे पहले इस तरह के पक्की ईटों के अवशेष बहुत ही कम जगहों पर ही मिले हैं |
यक़ीनन यह नयी खोज न सिर्फ तमिलनाडु के इतिहास को बल्कि भारत के इतिहास को भी एक नयी दिशा प्रदान करेगी और शायद एक नयी सभ्यता और समाज के बारे में हमें नए तथ्यों से अवगत कराये|
Ancient human ancestors that can be traced to populations alive today may have engaged in ‘sexual rendezvous’ with a ‘ghost’ species of archaic humans.
Scientists made the discovery while investigating the origins of the MUC7 protein. This is a mucin protein found in saliva that gives our spit its slimy consistency. A previous study indicated that MUC7 may have conferred an evolutionary advantage in early humans due to its ability in binding to microbes, helping the body rid itself of disease-causing bacteria.
In studying the evolution of the protein, the team looked at the MUC7 gene across 2,500 modern human genomes. In a surprising discovery, a drastically different version of the MUC7 gene was found in the genomes of people from Sub-Saharan Africa.
“When we looked at the history of the gene that codes for the protein, we see the signature of archaic admixture in modern day Sub-Saharan African populations,” says Omer Gokcumen assistant professor of biological sciences in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.
This Sub-Saharan MUC7 gene variant was so distinctive that it led researchers to conclude that it was the result of interbreeding with another human species as recently as 150,000 years ago.
“This unknown human relative could be a species that has been discovered, such as a subspecies of Homo erectus, or an undiscovered hominin,” says Gokcumen. “We call it a ‘ghost’ species because we don’t have the fossils.”
This isn’t the first time scientists have discovered traces of an undiscovered ancient hominin species, but it is the first instance of a genetic trace being found in our modern human genome. This indicates that there was significantly more interbreeding between ancient human species that previously thought.
“It seems that interbreeding between different early hominin species is not the exception – it’s the norm,” says Gokcumen.
This discovery adds further complexity to the pathway of human evolution. It seems the modern Homo sapien may have evolved from a variety of different ancient species, including several mysterious variants we have yet to fully uncover. It’s also increasingly clear that our ancient ancestors were having plenty of sex with an assortment of different archaic sub-species.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire invasion of Israel in 738 BCE brought with it war and destruction — and taxes, the trademarks of imperial rule. But because an army marches on its stomach, along with heavy tariffs came an impressive spate of agricultural infrastructure in its conquered territories.
An impressively large 2,700-year-old water system was recently exposed at Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) excavations near Rosh Ha-Ayin, in central Israel, with the help of students majoring in the Education Ministry’s Land of Israel and Archaeology studies. The excavation precedes the construction of a new residential neighborhood initiated by the Ministry of Construction and Housing.
In antiquity, rainwater collection and storage was a fundamental necessity. With an annual rainfall of 500 mm [20 in], the region’s winter rains would easily have filled the huge reservoir. On its walls, near the entrance, human figures were identified, crosses, and a vegetal motif that were probably carved by a passersby in a later period. Overall, seven figures measuring 15–30 cm [6-12 in], most with outstretched arms and a few appear to be holding some kind of object.
The water system was found to be nearly 20 meters [66 ft] long and reaches a depth of over four meters [13 ft]. The excavations reveal that the reservoir was built beneath a large structure with walls that are all nearly 50 meters [164 ft] long. Some of the potsherds found on the floors of the rooms probably belonged to vessels used to draw water from the reservoir. It is highly likely that the structure and the reservoir were built at the end of the Iron Age (late eighth or early seventh century BC), but whereas the building was abandoned during the Persian period the reservoir was still in use until modern times.
In recent years, a number of other farmsteads built at the end of the First Temple period have been discovered near Rosh Ha-Ayin. They were probably erected after the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel in 720 BC, when the Assyrian empire dominated the region. The establishment of farmhouses in this area is interesting, given the fact that many regions within the decimated kingdom of Israel remained desolate. Some scholars believe that the establishment of the farmsteads was motivated by the empire’s wish to settle the area, which lay on an international route and near the western border of the Assyrian empire. According to IAA excavation director, Gilad Itach, “The structure exposed in this excavation is different from most of the previously discovered farmsteads. Its orderly plan, vast area, strong walls, and the impressive water reservoir hewn beneath it suggest that the site was administrative in nature and it may well have controlled the surrounding farmsteads.”
High school students majoring in the Education Ministry’s Land of Israel and Archaeology track participated in the Rosh Ha-Ayin excavations as part of the Ministry and the IAA’s new educational program, which is designed to connect students with the past and train the archaeologists of tomorrow. Students opting for this track as part of their chosen matriculation assessment join an excavation for a week. They experience the various tasks involved in the excavation, discuss the research questions and archaeological considerations, and document the dig in the excavation journal as part of their research work.
In cooperation with the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Rosh Ha-Ayin Municipality, the IAA has plans for the site to remain an open area accessible to the public adjacent to the new residential neighborhood.
From 2016, archaeologists have been excavating the ruins of 104 houses, 205 graves and 20 sacrificial pits at Jiaojia village in Zhangqiu District, Jinan City, capital of Shandong. The relics are from the Longshan Culture, a late Neolithic civilization in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, named after Mount Longshan in Zhangqiu. The area was believed to be political, economic and cultural center of northern Shandong 5,000 years ago. Ruins of ditches and clay embankments were also found.
Recently archaeologists have made a stunning discovery here, finding graves bearing the ancient remains of a ‘giant’ people buried approximately 5,000 year ago. Measurements of bones from graves in Shandong Province show the height of at least one man to have reached 1.9 meters with quite a few at 1.8 meters or taller. According to the findings, taller men were found in larger tombs, possibly because such people had a high status and were able to acquire better food. Ruins of rows of houses in the area indicate that people lived quite comfortable lives, with separate bedrooms and kitchens. Colorful pottery and jade articles have also been found.
Shandong locals believe height to be one of their defining characteristics. Confucius (551-479 B.C.), a native of the region, was said to be about 1.9 meters tall. For context, in 2015, the average height of 18-year-old males in the region was 1.753 metres (5 ft, 9 in) tall. The national average in 2015 was 1.72 metres (5 ft, 8 in). It seems modern men of the same region are significantly shorter than many of these ancient forebears, even though men in China today would enjoy far better access to a range of healthy foods, and live in an era when we know much, much more about nutrition.
While we don’t know for sure how tall the average height would have been in Shandong 5,000 years ago, European males in the period are thought to have only stood 1.65 metres (5 ft, 5 in), so it’s clear these ‘giants’ were definitely unusually tall for their time.
Denisovans – a species of extinct cousins of Neanderthals and modern humans – has gained another specimen: a small, worn tooth. A team of paleoanthropologists with members from Russia, Germany, Canada and Italy studying the tooth found in Denisova cave back in 1984 has found that it belonged to a young Denisovan female child. In their paper published on the open access website Science Advances, the team also notes that DNA evidence suggests the child lived around 20,000 years before other Denisovans living within the same cave who also left behind fossils that are found and known.
Considering the very fact that we’ve got comparatively very little information from this archaic hominins, therefore having any extra individuals are some things very exciting. The newly discovered fossil brings to merely four the number of Denisovan fossils that are found and identified—one finger and three teeth. Due to the location of Denisova cave, that is found in Siberia, researchers believe the hominins lived in eastern parts of Eurasia, whereas Neanderthal are believed to have lived in western Eurasia.
The Denisovans were solely properly known once a team of researchers led by Svante Paabo studying a finger bone found in Denisova cave managed to extract a small bit of DNA. Analysis of the sample showed that it had been not Neanderthal as had been suspected however was instead from a special early hominn. They called it Denisova after the cave in that it had been found. An even closer look into the DNA samples conducted afterward showed that the Denisovans split faraway from Neanderthals throughout the time-frame 470,000 to 190,00 years ago. Subsequent excavation within the cave led to the discovery of two teeth that were also identified as Denisovan. The new identified fourth fossil is believed to have come from a child roughly ten to twelve years old.
After sequencing the DNA she compared genetic data from the sample with genetic information already collected from Denisovans, Neanderthals and modern humans. They found that it had been most similar to that extracted from the three younger Denisovan fossils mitochondrial genomes. The study also suggests Denisovan population was little and had a low genetic diversity throughout its long history than modern humans, however additional genetic diversity than seen in Neanderthal nuclear DNA.
The theory had been that the ancestors of modern humans separated from Neanderthals and Denisovans between 550,000 and 765,000 years ago. Whereas Neanderthals and Denisovans settled in Eurasia, modern humans stayed in Africa till about 70,000 years ago. Then they migrated towards Europe.
For almost a century, Neanderthals were thought of the ancestors of modern humans. there’s ample proof of mating between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans regarding 50,000 years ago. However in a very new plot twist within the evolution mystery of how Neanderthals were associated with modern humans, it currently appears that members of our lineage were among the ancestors of Neanderthals. Researchers sequenced ancient DNA from the mitochondria—tiny energy factories inside cells—from a Neanderthal who lived about 100,000 years ago in southwest Germany. They found that this DNA, that is inherited solely from the mother, resembled that of early modern humans.
The DNA within the energy-producing mitochondria in our cells is completely different from that in our cell nuclei, and is passed down solely within the female line. Puzzlingly, the mtDNA in Neanderthal bones is more like that of modern humans than it’s to that of the Denisovans.
A feminine member of the lineage that gave rise to Homo sapiens in Africa mated with a Neanderthal male over 220,000 years ago—much sooner than other known encounters between the two hominids. Her children spread her genetic inheritance through the Neanderthal lineage, and in time her African mtDNA fully replaced the ancestral Neanderthal mtDNA.
Researchers checked out differences between the mtDNA in this femur and in other Neanderthals, and that they used mutational rates to calculate that the bone is 124,000 years old. The approach additionally indicates that this Neanderthal split from all other known Neanderthals sometime between 316,000 and 219,000 years ago. However it still contains key components of early-human mtDNA.
This means that modern human ancestors should have interbred with Neanderthals before 219,000 years ago and thus might have migrated out of Africa and into Europe much sooner than we thought.
The team says an earlier migration event is additionally compatible with proof of archaeological similarities between Africa and western Eurasia. This and previous findings are lending support to models with frequent interbreeding events.
There were text evidences to prove the existence of an ancient city in Tamil Nadu, which could be found in ancient Tamil literature of Sangam Age. But historians and archaeologists have termed those references mere fragment of human imagination.
Sangam Age, which lasted from 400 BCE to 200 AD was a time in history of south India when all the poets and scholars under the guardianship of Pandya kings gathered in Madurai to compose some of the best Tamil works. In those written texts they have given details about life, culture and society of that time. These are the texts where a reference of a big ancient city near Madurai has been mentioned.
Till now there was no proof for that ancient city, but recently Archaeological Survey of India (Bangalore) have unearthed 2000 year old archaeological site situated 15 km far from Madurai City in Keeladi village of Sivaganga district. Total area, structure and presence of this urban settlements at first seems to be somewhat near to Mohenjo-Daro.
Researchers have discovered some 3000 artifacts from the site like Chess pieces, stone made dices, ornaments and weapons made up of metals and bones. The decorated pots have some written texts written in the Tamil Bramhi script which is the origin of the current Tamil script. Even the names written on the pots are the same as one could find in texts of Sangam literature.
There are some specific bricks made building which might have been constructed for social gathering and as a place of worship.
The discovery of this site will surely give a new light on the history of ancient South India, which does not have early archaeological sites to prove its ancient existence and culture.
Meat eating in India is very ancient. There are concrete evidences to prove it if one goes through the sacred Indian texts. Foremost among them is the Aitareya Brahmana, Adhyaya I and II of Pañcikā II gives a detailed procedure for sacrificing animals and distribution of their limbs as Prashada. There are certain hymns in Rigveda (10th Mandala) and Atharvaveda which advocates eating of meat either for sacrificial purpose or as a medication in some cases.
Some staunch believer of Hinduism may oppose references of those hyms by questioning the authenticity of interpretation of these sacred texts most of which have been translated by Christians and English, who eat and advocate beef and meat eating. Findings like these surely provide concrete and irrefutable evidences which cannot be opposed by questioning their authenticity.
Researchers at Archaeology and Museums Department of Haryana, who are doing excavation in Kunal, which is one of the oldest Harappan sites in Haryana have found some bones which are remains of cooked meat. Though they have not tested genetic composition of these bones yet, but archaeologists, who are part of this research postulate that it could be of Nilgai, Buffalo or some other animals.
These findings are evident enough to prove that people, who were living at this Harappan site were meat eaters. It is not clear whether these animals were domestic, breed for eating or were hunted wild animals.
They have sent the samples to the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences in Lucknow to date their existence.