1947 War Between India and Pakistan – Causes and Effects

The war continued from 1947 to 1948. The result of the first war between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir still affects the geopolitics of both the nation.

However there were several reasons that prepared the battleground for the Indo-Pakistan war of 1947 for both the countries. During the year 1815, Jammu and Kashmir nearly comprised of 22 small independent states that include 16 Hindu states and 6 Muslim states, which were carved out of territories controlled by the local rulers. Those states were together known as “Punjab Hill States”. After the fall of the Mughals, all the hill states fell one after another under the domination of the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh. But during the Anglo-Sikh war of 1845 the Sikhs have been  made to surrender one of their region, which was between the Sutlej River and Beas River and required to pay a guarantee of 1.2 million rupees. But they could not raise the sum so Kashmir went into the hands of Dogra Ruler, Gulab Singh in exchange of 750,000 rupees to the British East India Company.

According to the Indian Independence Act of 1947, the British were terminated and their rule over the states got over from 15th August, 1947. However before and after the withdrawal of the British from India, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir came under excessive pressure from both the nations- India and Pakistan to agree to come to either India or Pakistan, one of the newly independent countries. The Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh, decided to avoid accession to both Indian and Pakistan. This chaos was another reason for the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947. After a revolution by Muslims in the Poonch and Mirpur area and an allegedly Pashtun tribal intervention from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, who were supported by Pakistan army that was aimed at supporting the revolution, the Maharaja of Kashmir asked for military assistance from India. On asking for help, India put a condition before him that Kashmir must accede to India, to get assistance. As the Maharaja complied, Indian troops were sent to the state to defend it.

Initially the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 started when Pakistan pointed out that the Maharaja of Kashmir is just an appointee of the British, who was appointed when Ranjit Singh was defeated in the Anglo-Sikh war. Before the British rule, there was no position called “Maharaja of Kashmir”. The first Indo-Pakistan war of 1947 between Indian and Pakistan was dreadful, taking lives of many and also affected the relation between both the nations. The war continued till end of the 1948, but seeing the worsening condition of the war, the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru asked UN to interfere to cease the war. India acquired around three fifth of Kashmir, while Pakistan acquired two fifth of Kashmir.

Share This:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *